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Customer Service> Guide to Fabrics | Glossary of Fabrics | Blair

Guide to Fabrics

1. A Guide to Fibers, Yarns, & Finishes 2. A Guide to Footwear & Leathers 3. Glossary of Fabrics & Style Terms

 

Glossary of Fabrics

Fabrics are created by either weaving or knitting processes. Below you’ll find helpful descriptions of both, and then a list of today’s most popular fabrics.

Woven. Two or more sets of yarns are interlaced at right angles to each other. The variations are as follows.

plain weave – the simplest and most common weave
twill weave – basic weave characterized by diagonal lines in the face of the fabric
oxford – fine, soft, lightweight 2 x 1 basket weave variation of the plain weave construction
satin – usually made from yarns with high luster to produce a shiny face
crepe – woven to have a crinkled, pebbly surface
dobby – features small, woven-in repeated designs that are usually
geometric in shape
jacquard – characterized by intricate, woven-in motifs

Knits. These fabrics are made by intermeshing or interlocking loops of yarns, using the knit and purl stiches. Basic knits are listed below.

jersey – known as a plain or single knit, with a vertical grain on front for a smooth surface
rib – characterized by lengthwise ribs and greater elasticity in the width
interlock – variation of a rib knit with a smooth surface

Today’s popular fabrics.

Bedford cord – strong and durable fabric with a vertical rib effect
brocade – rich, heavy jacquard-woven fabric with raised patterns
canvas – extra strong, durable plain weave fabric
challis – plain weave fabric known for softness and drapability
chambray – plain weave fabric interlacing a colored and white yarn
chenille – soft, thick, absorbent fabric woven from chenille yarns
chintz – solid or printed cotton or cotton blend fabrics with a slightly shiny or glazed finish
corduroy – napped fabric with ridges
damask – jacquard-woven fabric with elaborate patterns, similar to brocade but flatter
denim – twill weave fabric interlacing colored and white yarns
doupioni – plain weave fabric with irregular, long, thin slubs
duck – extra strong, durable plain weave fabric
eyelet – fancywork featuring cut-out areas with stitching around them
flannel – plain or twill weave fabric with slight nap
fleece – knit fabric with a dense brushed nap on one or both sides
gabardine – twill weave fabric with a pronounced diagonal line visible in the face of the fabric
gauze – plain weave fabric with a loose, open weave due to a low thread count
intarsia – knit fabric of two or more colors characterized by an unrestricted stretch
lace – fine, openwork fabric with patterns worked onto a background of net or mesh
macramé – knotted string, wool or yarns that create designs and openwork patterns
matelassé – thick, double fabric with a quilted-like top texture and raised patterns
microfiber – ultra-fine man-made fibers of acrylic, nylon, polyester or rayon, woven into a fabric that’s soft and supremely drapable
moleskin – tightly woven cotton twill brushed with uniform thickness reating an extremely soft, yet rugged and long lasting fabric
percale – smooth, luxurious tightly-woven fabric
piece dye – the dyeing of fabric after weaving or knitting
piqué – woven or knit fabric characterized by an all-over, small square textured pattern
plissé – plain weave fabric with a textured surface similar to seersucker
pointelle – a knit fabric with a lacey pattern knit in
pongee – thin fabric known for its softness
seersucker – plain weave fabric with permanent crinkled stripes
shantung – plain weave fabric, usually of silk, with irregular slubs for a rough texture
sheeting – a lightweight plain weave fabric
terry cloth – woven or knitted fabric with a pile weave of uncut loops
thermal knit (or waffle weave) – fabric knit with a series of square, waffle-like designs that hold in warmth
tricot – knit fabric characterized by its fine vertical face and cross ribs on the back
tweed – a medium to heavy weight twill weave fabric, usually woolen, containing colored slubbed yarns
velour – napped fabric with a thick pile surface
velvet – fabric with a woven cut pile that has a rich, soft texture
voile – very sheer, lightweight fabric with a crisp hand
whipcord – twill weave fabric with a step diagonal pattern on the face
yarn dye – the dyeing of yarns before fabric is woven or knit

 

General Style terms

A-line – skirt in which the hemline measures greater than the hip line, for more fullness
appliqué – separate piece of fabric that is applied to a larger background for decoration
banded collar – a collar attached to the neckline by a band that stands up against the neck
bartack – series of short, narrow zigzag stitches that reinforce a stress point on a garment
besom pocket – also a welt pocket; characterized by a separate strip or flap stitched to the pocket opening with the pouch falling to the inside of the garment
bias – a line diagonally across the grain of the fabric; garments cut on the bias closely follow curves of the body
boat neck – neckline cut in a shallow curve across the line of the collar bones almost to the tip of the shoulders, with the same shape across the back
box pleat – double pleat where the two folds meet in the center, underneath the pleat
capri – pants that fall slightly above the ankle
cardigan – outer coat, jacket or sweater type of garment that buttons in the center front
cuff – a finishing band of material, either made separately and attached or created by turning back an extension of the hem of a sleeve or pant leg
dart – a V-shaped seam to fit garments around body contours
embroidery – decorative needlework using various colored yarns or embroidery floss
gore – section of a skirt that is wider at the hem than the top, for fullness and shaping
placket – areas that feature buttons, snaps, zippers, etc. that secure an opening in a garment
princess line – curving shaping seam that forms panels to contour a garment to the body
rise – distance from crotch to bottom of waistband in pants
set-in sleeve – sleeve that is cut separately and sewn into the armhole of the bodice, to fit smoothly or with gathers for exaggerated fullness
shirttail hem – shaped hemline that curves up from center front and back to the side seams
tankini – two-piece swimsuit with bikini style bottom and tank style top
welt pocket – also a besom pocket; characterized by a separate strip or flap stitched to the pocket opening with the pouch falling to the inside of the garment
yoke – portion of garment across the shoulders (front or back) that is usually a separate piece of fabric seamed to the body of the garment

 

 

1. A Guide to Fibers, Yarns, & Finishes
2. A Guide to Footwear & Leathers
3. Glossary of Fabrics & Style Terms